Elements of Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Belief and Customs of Tou Tei

    “Tou Tei Kung”, “Foc Tac Cheng San” or “Tai Pak Kung”, is one of the most popular Chinese folk deities and is considered by the believers to be in charge of some lands, and to be protecting the life, health and riches of the residents, among other aspects.


    The belief and customs of Tou Tei boasts a long history in Macao and shows a variety in the altars, which can be classified as tablets, stone tablets, big and small altars as well as temples. Currently, Macao has around 10 temples and over 160 altars dedicated to Tou Tei, in addition to individual tablets at the entrance of numerous residences and shops. The image of Tou Tei can take several forms, namely as stone pieces, stone tablets, statues of “Tou Tei Kung Kung” (Grandfather Earth God) and of “Tou Tei Po Po” (Grandmother Earth God). In each chinese lunar year, the second day of the second month marks the celebration of the festival of Tou Tei, commonly known as “Tau Nga”, during which many local Tou Tei temples organize big festive events, including prayers, lion dances, chinese opera performances for deities, and banquets etc., bringing a lively atmosphere to the local Chinese communities and is an important religious festivity for them.

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